Obligation of Hajj & Umrah
Hajj or Umrah is not waajib (obligatory) upon a woman until the following conditions are met:
-she has a mahram (male relative to accompany her)
-she can afford it for herself and the mahram both
It is haraam for a woman to travel, including going to Umrah or Hajj, without a mahram.
The clothing of a woman while in Ihraam is: anything. Any type of clothes in any colour can be worn. Once it adheres to the rules of Islamic modesty, it is allowed.
The only difference is the face covering. The sister should not wear the usual niqab that reveals the eyes and is tied around her head.
Rather, in places where non-mahram men can see her, she should cover her entire face with a loosely draped cloth.
When making the Niyyah/ Intention
If someone fears that something may arise that will prevent them from completing the Hajj or Umrah,
such as if a woman fears that her period will come and she will not have time to become pure before she must leave, or someone who fears the worsening of a sickness, etc
then the person can stipulate this condition when verbalizing the niyyah/ intention:
إِنْ حَبَسَنِي حَابِسٌ فَمَحِّلِي حَيْثُ حَبَسْتَنِي
“If something prevents me (from continuing), I will exit ihraam from the point where you have prevented me.”
This way, the person who could not complete their umrah or Hajj will not be required to do a gifts (penalty of sacrificing an animal).
NOTE: This conditional intention is only to be used in rare cases.
Crossing the miqaat
A woman who is menstruating or bleeding due to childbirth must be in ihraam when she crosses the miqaat.
She is recommended to do ghusl and enter the state of ihraam, even though she is not praying.
Tawaaf and Saee'
The menstruating woman should not do Tawaaf and Saee’.
In Umrah, the steps must’ve in order. So the Tawaaf should be delayed until her menstruation is complete. Then she should do Saee’, then cut her hair.
In Hajj, the steps can be out of order. So it is allowed for her to do Saee’while menstruating, and leave only the Tawaaf for when her period finishes.
When her menstrual period is complete, then she can do the Tawaaf and Saee’thereby completing her Umrah or Hajj.
NOTE: If her period came after completing Tawaaf but before Saee’, then she can do Saee’ while on her period.
Arafah, Muzdalifah, and Mina
A menstruating woman can do all the steps of Hajj except Tawaaf.
She can stand on the plains of Arafah, go to Muzdalifah, stone the jamaraat in Mina, and do the sacrifice…all while on her period.